Determination is Force.  Casualty is Striking.  Change is Motion.

  • Description of motion:  A hand slams down on a knee or a table with a definitive sound. 
  • Date Observed: 12/24/14 at dinner party.  Many people seated at table (10-12)
  • Example:  "When I saw how that man was treating that woman, (slam) I just knew I had to do something."
  • Use:  Often used when a definitive decision has been made or to show determination. 
  • Metaphor: Determination is Force. Casualty is Striking.  Change is Motion.
  • Explanation: The hand strikes a surface because we think of change happening by objects hitting each other.  If this is our conception of objects, then abstractions work the same way to.  The hand then roots the abstract idea of casualty in three coherent metaphors.   The movement of your hand is the change that is coming.  The Striking of your hand is the casual effect (ideas are billiard balls that need to be struck to have any effect)  and finally, the force with which it is struck is equal to the determination of enacting that change.  Also possibly coherent with the metaphor of "being struck".  A decision seemingly comes out of nowhere and hits you, thus you hit yourself in reference to your decision.
  • Origin:  As infants, some of the first experiences we have is how our body effects the world around us.  If we push something over, liquid pours out.  This kind of understanding of the physical world is then later mapped onto an understanding of abstract concepts.
  • Sound: The sound is also significant as it demonstrates empirically that this thing exists, has been decided upon, i.e., "I make a sound, therefore I am."  

Argument is Opposing Forces (Argument is War)

  • Description of motion:  Hand extends outward with palm facing other person.  Motion of arms stops and then hand quickly angles further toward the person.

  • Observed:  1-14-2015. Rad School Meeting. Kendell.  13 people seated around table. 

  • Link to use:  No Offense: The New Threats to Free Speech

  • Example:  "No offense, but I don't think the example you gave is pertinent to this discussion."

  • Use:  Used as a concilitatory gesture to suggest (whether true or not) that someone is not being attacked.

  • Metaphor: Argument is War

  • Explanation:  If Argument is War, then there is an offensive and a defensive strategy to arguments, just as there is to war.  You can attack and you can defend.  There are social repercussions for people that always seem to be "attacking" in their arguments, the main one being, that they will be perceived as a bully.  Feigning defense then becomes a strategy to mitigate this problem.  The phrase, "No offense" can sometimes be stated truthfully, as when someone unconsciously offends someone and then realizes what they've said and tries to rectify the situation, or it can be used to try and diminish what is obviously an aggressive strategy by immediately describing it (before or after the statement) as "no offense".

    Arguments can then also be thought of as "weak" or "strong", both words that have to do with force (two fundamental forces in physics).  A strong argument can then "move people" because a strong argument is thought of as having a "strong force".  

    The gesture of the palm facing towards the other person, is itself a defensive gesture, which bears similarity to the "stop" gesture (hand held defiantly out) as well as the "search me" gesture, where the hands are held palm up to the person, as well as the "hands up" gesture.  That a defensive gesture is coupled with a defensive saying "no offense" is a interesting, in that, this pair usually is accompanied by an aggressive statement, seemingly trying to mask the aggressiveness, so as to not seem like a bully.    

  • Note on categorization:  War is often thought of as the collision of forces.  The greater force, might generate more "momentum" thus easily "rolling over" the "weaker force".  All of these war metaphors surround the basic idea of Force, which is why it is categorized as such.

  • Origin:  We can experience the wind pushing against us, or pushing us along.  Experiencing this, we can then talk about abstract ideas as forces that push against each other.